Allah – Means “The Only One to be Worshipped” “Allah” is the same word used by Christian Arabs and Jewish Arabs in their Bible, centuries before Islam came. Allah is the name of the God of all the creation in the heavens and the earth.
On page one  of Genesis in the Old Testament, we find the word “Allah” seventeen  times.
The Holy Quran says: Surah 112
Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;
And there is none like unto Him.
Allah says in the Quran:
“Truly, I am Allah; there is no God but I; therefore serve Me”
Things exist by His will
“When We decree a thing, We need only say: ‘Be’, and it is ”
“Surely, your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days,
then ascended His Throne, Ordaining all things”
Allah – the Supreme Being of this universe – revealed the message of truth through the Quran to enable us to live meaningful lives and to help us succeed in the hereafter. Reflecting on that message with an open mind and heart has allowed many from mankind to recognize and believe in Allah as the sole deity of this universe. Once our minds clearly know Allah as our creator and sustainer, we can better understand Allah’s rights over us and can also help us to worship Him the way we ought to worship Him as our creator.
The prophet (S) said: “Allah’s right over His servants is that they worship Him without associating any partner with Him in worship, and their right over Him is that He does not punish anyone who worships Him without associating any partner with Him in worship.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim]
For us to worship Allah, we must, therefore, strive to learn about His rights over us. We can know more about Allah by properly understanding the concepts of Tawheed and to inculcate those principles in our hearts. The principles of Tawheed should never be taken lightly because they mark the boundaries of entering Islam. Believing in those concepts brings one in the fold of Islam and denying them puts one out of Islam.
The book ‘Sharh Hadeeth Jibra’eel’ by Shaikh ibn Saleh al-Uthaimeen (with additional quotes from Shaikh Salih ibn Fawzan ibn Abdullah al-Fawzan) highlight and summarize the various aspects of Tawheed that are held by Ahlus-Sunnah (Followers of Sunnah). They are summarized in the following.
Eeman (belief/faith) in Allah comprises of the following distinct concepts:
The following summarizes the above concepts.
Allah proclaims His existence in the Quran by presenting multiple proofs and arguments, some of which are as follows:
The creation of this universe and the order held therein forces one to think about the originator of this miracle. On pondering, one realizes that this universe couldn’t have started from nothing and the order with which it is held is a miracle in its own right. Even more astounding is the manner in which Allah assertively proclaims Himself in the Quran as the originator of this creation and maintainer of this order. This eloquent description of the various aspects of this universe’s creation can only be found in the Quran. Consider the following verses in the Quran:
“Were they created by nothing or were they themselves the creators?” [At-Tur 52 : 35]
“It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.” [Ya-Sin 36:40]
“This is the creation of Allah. So, show Me that which those (whom you worship) besides Him have created.”[Luqman 31 : 11]
“Verily! Those whom you call upon besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly, even if they combine together for the purpose.” [Al-Hajj 22 : 73]
The proclamation and confident assertion in these verses about Allah’s creation of this universe gives credence to the deity and existence of Allah.
The Fitrah (natural human instinct) proves the Existence of Allah
When faced with calamities, man has the instinct to call upon “God”. This is because as humans we are created to be as such and most agree that a person’s “self” calling upon a “supreme being” in extreme situations is part of man’s nature. Allah reminds us in the Quran that this natural instinct (fitrah) of us calling upon Allah is part of Adam’s creation. He says in the Quran:
“(Remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed and made them testify as to themselves (saying), “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes! We testify.” (Surah Al-A’raf:172)
He also says:
“(Remember) Ayub (Job), when he cried to his Lord, “Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy. So We answered his call. We removed the distress that was on him. We restored his family to him and the like thereof along with them as a mercy from Ourselves and a Reminder for all who worship Us.” (Surah Al-Anbiya:83-84)
Shaikh Fawzan writes in Aqeedah at-Tawheed that “even Firawn (Pharaoh), who is famous for his pretence of denying the (existence of) Lord, was convinced about it inwardly. Allah says in the Quran about Firawn and his people:
“they belied them (those verses and signs) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their own selves were convinced thereof.” (Surah An-Naml:14)
Again, not only we sense our instincts to call upon Allah in extreme situations, Allah’s reminding us of this facet of our nature in the Quran is another proof of His existence and as our Creator.
Proof through other (Divine) Religions (Judaism and Christianity)
Pondering over the Quran shows us how Allah refers to the earlier scriptures that He had revealed on the Jews and Christians and His message to them to now embrace Allah’s words in the Quran. That’s because Allah’s message in earlier scriptures was changed. Consider what Allah says in the Quran:
And (remember) when We gave Musa (Moses) the scripture [the Taurat (Torah)] and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright.” (Surah Al-Baqara:53)
O people of the scripture (Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah aught but the truth. The Messiah ‘Îsa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, (“Be!” – and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Ruh ) created by Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: “Three (trinity)!” Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One Ilah (God), glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs. (Surah An-Nisa:171)
O people of the scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad (S) making (things) clear unto you, after a break in (the series of) Messengers, lest you say: “There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner.” But now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And Allah is Able to do all things. (Surah Al-Maeda:19)
For those doubting Quran as the word of the God, Allah challenges mankind to read and ponder over its verses. Unfortunately, the critics of Quran are usually those who have neither pondered over the Quran nor try to understand its verses in the context in which they were revealed and addressed to mankind. As a result, they only see what their ignorance leads them to see. Allah challenges those people by asking them:
“Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah they would surely have found therein much contradictions.” (Surah An-Nisa 4:82)
Faith in the Oneness of Allah’s Lordship
Allah has reminded us numerous times through the Quran that faith in His Lordship is one of the prerequisites to enter Islam. The meaning of Rabb(Lord) means (i) the Creator, (ii) the Owner, and (iii) the One in Control of all affairs. The Quran has numerous verses attesting to that fact. Again, along with pondering over the meaning of the verses, let us also observe the assertiveness and confident proclamation that attest to the deity of Allah. As an example, consider the following:
“The Originator of the heavens and the earth.” (Surah Al-Baqarah:117)
“All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the (Only) Originator of the heavens and the earth.” (Surah Fatir:1)
“Maalik of the Day of Recompense.” (Surah al-Fatihah)
“He (Allah) arranges (every) affair from the heavens to the earth.” (Surah As-Sajdah:5)
We see the proof of His Lordship in our lives where we can sense His unseen presence in running the affairs of our lives and how He has attributed that power onto Himself through the various verses of the Quran. As humans, we know that our power is deficient and we possess limited control over our affairs. Allah reminds us in the Quran that He, as our sustainer, governs our affairs such as giving life and death, causing sickness and providing cure, blessing His creation with richness and afflicting them with poverty, and so on.
Faith in the Oneness of Allah’s Worship
We should recognize that Tawheed Rububiyah by itself is not enough to admit one into the fold of Islam. Another important facet of our faith is therefore to also believe in the “oneness of Allah’s worship.” Allah reminds us in the Quran that even the kuffar, the mushrikeen and iblees affirmed the Lordship of Allah. Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan writes in Mujmal Aqeedah as-Salaf, that “…even Iblees (Satan), who is the head of Kufr said (as stated in the Quran),
“O my Lord! Because you misled me…” (Surah Al-Hijr:39)
“By Your Might, then I will surely mislead them all.” (Surah As-Saad:82).
So, Iblees confessed the Lordship of Allah and took an oath by Allah’s Might. Similarly, by reading history we come to know that while the disbelievers such as Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, and others confessed the Lordship of Allah, they did not believe in worshipping only Allah as the Lord of the universe. Allah says in the Quran:
“If you ask them who created them, they will surely say, ‘Allah’ (Surah Zukhruf:87)
The next step, therefore, after accepting and declaring Tawheed Rububiyah is establishment of Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah. This was the Message of all the Messengers. Shaikh Saleh ibn Fawzan al-Fawzan writes in Aqeedah at-Tawheed that “Tawheed ar-Rububiyah necessitates Tawheed al-Uluhiyah i.e., once we have declared Tawheed ar-Rububiyah and affirmed that there is no Creator, Provider or Controller of the Universe except Allah, we need to proclaim Tawheed al-Uluhiyah – i.e., no one deserves any form of worship except Allah, none is to be invoked and sought help from except Allah, none is to be relied upon except Allah, none is to be offered sacrifices and avowed to except Allah and no worship is performed except for Allah alone.’
Allah reminds us in the Quran:
“O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah) Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become pious. Who has made the earth a resting place for you and the sky as a canopy and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshiped).” (Surah Al-Baqarah:21-22)
Allah thus ordered Tawheed al-Uluhiyah, which is His worship and He presented Tawheed ar-Rububiyah as a proof and reason for that. That is because we know that Allah created the sky and the earth and all that is between them; the blowing of the wind, sending down of the rain, the growing of the plants, the production of fruits which is the provision of the slaves. So it is not befitting for man to associate partners with Allah. Allah says in the Quran:
Say, ‘In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures of each and everything)? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know.’ They will say, ‘(All that belongs) to Allah.’ Say, ‘How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?” (Surah Al-Mu’minoon:84]
“Such is Allah, your Lord! None deserves worship but He, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone).” (Surah Al-An’aam:102)
Many similar verses can be found in the Quran where Allah has reminded us that He is the true ilah (the one who deserves to be worshipped) and that no one shares with Him this right (of being worshipped), be it an Angel or a Prophet. It is for this reason that Allah tells us that the call of all the Prophets from the first of them to the last of them was, “La ilaha illa Allah. (there is no ilah except Allah.)”
“Verily, We have sent among every nation, a Messenger (proclaiming), “Worship Allah (Alone), and avoid Taghoot (false deities).” (Surah An-Nahl:36)
So, therefore, if someone believes in the existence of Allah and believes in the Rububiyah of Allah but worships others alongside Allah then he is not a believer in Allah until he singles out Allah in His Uluhiyyah.
“That is because Allah, He is the Truth and what they (the polytheist) invoke besides Him, it is Batil (false).” (Surah Al-Hajj:62)
It is therefore unfortunate to see many who have been misguided from Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah and returned to the Deen of the Mushrikeen by worshiping the graves and tombs, venerating saints and associating with them attributes of Lordship. Again, let’s not forget that only Allah is worthy of worship and let’s be wary of any acts directed to others that may take the form of worship.
In his book “Tawheed First”, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Albanee clarified that to translate the verse “La Ilaha IllAllah” as “there is no god but God or Allah” is incorrect because it masks certain aspects of Tawheed. In his explanation about the importance of Tawheed and its relevance to all aspects of a Muslim’s life, he stated that this is important because in the days of Jahilyaah, although people understood the meaning of “La Ilaha IllAllah” (“there is no god worthy of worship except Allah”), yet they took partners with Allah and called upon others than Allah, and accordingly sought help from others, made vows to other than Allah and so on. So, the closest translation and interpretation for “La Ilaha IllAllah” should be “there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.”
So, to summarize the concept of “Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah”, let’s not forget that as part of their beliefs, Muslims should believe what Allah has reminded the entire humanity, which is:
“Know, that indeed there is no god worthy of worship except Allah…” (Surah Muhammad:19)
The fourth aspect of a Muslim faith is to believe in both the names and attributes of Allah. This may seem a trivial issue to some but there are many so called philosophers and theologians amongst Muslims who have disputed the concept of names and attributes of Allah. For example, there are some who would say that “Allah is Samee (All-Hearing) without a Hearing, He is Baseer (All-Seeing) without sight.’ This was especially well-known in the Mu’tazilah Madhhab.
Allah says in the Quran:
“(all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them,” (Surah al-A’raf:180)
Scholars have noted a notable difference between the names and attributes of Allah. The names of Allah refer to His essence. So, his names al-Qadeer (the Powerful), al-‘Aleem (The All-Knowing), al-‘Azeez (the Almighty), al-Hakeem (the Wise) – for example – all point to one Essence, which is the holy Essence of Allah. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “we know that all the names agree in that they refer to the Essence of Allah. Even though they have different meanings, they are in agreement and are the same with regard to His Essence, different with regard to His Attributes.” [Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 3/59].
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “The names and attributes of Allah, may He be exalted, are names in that they refer to His Essence and they are attributes with regard to the meanings contained in these words. In the first regard they are the same because they refer to one Essence, namely Allah, may He be exalted and glorified, and in the second regard they are different because each one has a different meaning.
So al-Hayy (the Ever-Living), al-‘Aleem (the All-Knowing), al-Qadeer (the Powerful), as-Samee‘ (the All-Hearing), al-Baseer (the All-Seeing), ar-Rahmaan (the Most Merciful), ar-Raheem (the Most Compassionate), al-‘Azeez (the Almighty), al-Hakeem (the All Wise) are all names of one named entity, who is Allah, may He be exalted, but the meaning of al-Hayy (the Ever-Living) is different from the meaning of al-‘Aleem (the All-Knowing), and the meaning of al-‘Aleem (the All-Knowing) is different from the meaning of al-Qadeer (the Powerful), and so on.
When we consider the names and attributes of Allah, we should be wary of not equating that to any of the attributes of the creation. According to the scholars of sunnah, in affirming the names and attributes of Allah, we should be wary of the two great prohibitions, which are (1) Tamtheel (resembling Allah to His creation), and (2) Takyeef (asking how the Names and Attributes are). These two prohibitions are proven by the text (of the Quran and the Sunnah) and also by the intellect. Allah says in the Quran:
“There is nothing like unto Him.” (Surah ash-Shura:11)
“So put not forward similitude for Allah.” (Surah an-Nahl:74)
“Do you know of any who is similar to Him?” (Surah Maryam:65)
The rational proof according to scholars is that the creator can never be like His creation and that the creation will be destroyed. As Allah says in the Quran:
“Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever.” (Surah ar-Rahman:26-27)
To conclude, let’s remind ourselves that the Muslim faith requires affirmation of the existence of Allah as the God and supreme being of this universe, beliefs in the concepts of Tawheed Rububiyah (Lordship), Tawheed Uluhiyyah (Worship), and belief in Allah’s names and attributes (al-Asmaa was-Sifaat).
Muhammad son of Abdullah is the last prophet in a series of prophets sent by Allah for guidance to mankind. Muhammad the greatest law-bearer, in a series of prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, an agent of divine action. Born in 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca. His father died before he was born. His mother died when he was six years of age. He was brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25 to Khadijah who was widowed and was 40 years old. He used to retreat to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “surrender” to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hosytility from Meccan tribes he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622 CE. This event, the Hijra marks the beginning of the Islamic Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand,conquered Mecca without any bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had accepted his message and converted to Islam, and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious state. It is said that there were 125,000 people who attended his Farewell Sermon.
Speech on Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) (and message of Islam)
There have been many biographies written and speeches given on Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) that have provided a glimpse of his life, the role that he played as a Messenger of God, and the message that he brought for mankind. However, the speech delivered by Ja‘far bin Abi Talib to the Christian king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in the 7th century to date is referenced as one of the most succinct and eloquent speeches that captured the moments of that era, and expressed the message of Islam concisely and clearly.The speech was delivered in the fifth year of Muhammad’s Prophethood. As we recall from the early days of Islam when Muslims were tortured, persecuted, and humiliated in many ways, a few Muslims emigrated to take refuge in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) that was ruled by Ashamah Negus (also known as al-Najashi), a Christian king. The prophet had known him as a fair ruler and thus had permitted the followers of Islam to take refuge in his kingdom.
Makkah’s Quraish, who at the time were amongst the foremost in persecuting the new Muslims could not tolerate the Muslims living peacefully in the Christian kingdom. Hence, they made a last ditch effort to get those Muslims extradited to Makkah and sent two of their strongest envoys to demand their extradition. Those envoys were Amr bin Al-As and Abdullah bin Abi Rabia (the two embraced Islam a few years later). The two envoys took valuable gifts for the king and his clergy in the hopes of convincing the king to return the new Muslims. The pagan envoys demanded the Muslims’ extradition on grounds that they had abandoned the religion of their forefathers, and their leader (Mohammad) was preaching a religion different from theirs and from that of the king.
On hearing the claims against Muslims that the envoys had presented, the Christian king summoned the Muslims to his court. The Muslims selected Jafar bin Abi Talib to speak on their behalf. With silence in the court, Jafar bin Abi Talib stood up and addressed the king in the following words:
“O king! we were plunged in the depth of ignorance and barbarism; we adored idols, we lived in unchastity, we ate the dead bodies, and we spoke abominations, we disregarded every feeling of humanity, and the duties of hospitality and neighborhood were neglected; we knew no law but that of the strong, when Allah raised among us a man, of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty, and purity we were aware; and he called to the Oneness of Allah , and taught us not to associate anything with Him. He forbade us the worship of idols; and he enjoined us to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful and to regard the rights of the neighbors and kith and kin; he forbade us to speak evil of women, or to eat the substance of orphans; he ordered us to fly from the vices, and to abstain from evil; to offer prayers, to render alms, and to observe fast. We have believed in him, we have accepted his teachings and his injunctions to worship Allah, and not to associate anything with Him, and we have allowed what He has allowed, and prohibited what He has prohibited. For this reason, our people have risen against us, have persecuted us in order to make us forsake the worship of Allah and return to the worship of idols and other abominations. They have tortured and injured us, until finding no safety among them; we have come to your country, and hope you will protect us from oppression.” [Reference: Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum]
It is quite obvious from the speech that it has stood the test of time and delivers the message of Islam today just as effectively as it did more than 1400 years ago. The eloquence of the speech leaves no doubt regarding the strength of the faith and clarity of the new Muslims’ understanding of Islam and the message brought by Allah’s messenger. This speech also serves as a reminder not just for us Muslims but also for those who are still struggling to get the message that Muhammad (peace be upon him) brought for mankind.
Prophet’s first Friday sermon in Al-Madinah
The following is a sermon that is mentioned in ibn Al-Qayyim’s famous book Zad Al-Ma’ad (Provisions of the hereafter). This book is one of the important resources of knowledge for those who seek to know the Seerah of their Prophet (S.A.W.S.) as well as, the Fiqh learned from it. This is a book that is unique in that it explains the Sunnah through the Seerah and the Seerah through the Sunnah.
This sermon was delivered when the prophet (S.A.W.S.) first arrived in Quba / Al-Madinah and before he (S.A.W.S.) built his mosque in Al-Madinah.
Ibn Ishaq reported on the authority of ‘Abdur-Rahman Ibn Ka’b Ibn Malik that he said (part of the narration): “After the Messenger of Allah arrived in Al-Madinah and he stayed In Quba’ on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday and he built their mosque, then he left on Friday and time for Friday prayer overtook him in the land of Banu Salim Ibn ‘Awf, and so he prayed it In the mosque which was in the middle of the valley before the building of his mosque.
Ibn Ishaq said: “It was the first sermon which he delivered; according to Abu Salamah Ibn ‘Abdur-Rahman – and we seek refuge with Allah from attributing to him anything which he did not say – he stood up among them and praised Allah and extolled Him, then he said:
“As for what follows, oh, you people! Send forth for yourselves (good deeds); you know for sure, by Allah, that a person among you will be struck down unconscious and he will leave his sheep without a shepherd, then his Lord will surely say to him – and there will be neither intermediary nor screen between them: “Did not My Messenger come to you and communicate (the Message), and did I not give you wealth and favor you? And what did you send forth for yourself?” And verily, he will look right and left, but he will see nothing; then he will look in front of him and he will see naught but the Hell-fire. So whoever is able to shield his face from the Fire, even if it be only by giving a piece of a date in charity, let him do so; and whoever was unable to do so, let him (shield it) by saying a good word, for the reward of a good deed is multiplied by ten times seven hundred times. And may the Peace, Mercy and Blessings of Allah be upon you.”
Ibn Ishaq said: “Then the Messenger of Allah, delivered a second sermon, saying:
“All praise and thanks be to Allah, I praise Him and I seek His Aid. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of ourselves and from the wickedness of our deeds. Whomsoever Allah guides, there is none can misguide him and whomsoever Allah sends astray, there is none can guide him. And I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, Alone, without partners.The best of speech is the Book of Allah. He whose heart has been beautified with it by Allah and whom He has admitted to the fold of Islam after he had disbelieved will be successful, for he has chosen it (Allah’s Speech) over that of all of mankind. Truly, it is the best of speech and the most eloquent. Love what Allah loves; love Allah with all of your hearts. Do not become tired of Allah’s Speech, nor of mentioning His Name and do not make your hearts hard towards it. Hence, amongst everything that Allah creates He chooses [something]; Allah would call it: His Kheerah (best) in terms of deeds; His favorite ones amongst the servants; that which is good and useful in terms of speech; So worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him and fear Him as He should be feared and be sincere to Allah in the righteous words which pass your lips and love one another with Allah’s Spirit between you. Verily, Allah hates that His Covenant should be broken. And may the Peace, Mercy and Blessings of Allah be upon you.”
(Source: ‘Zad Al-Ma’ad’. Mentioned by Ibn Hisham in ‘As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah’ from Ibn Ishaq, but without any chain of narrators. See ‘Zad Al-Ma’ad’ vol. 1, page 374 published by Maktabah Al-Manar Al-Islamiyyah)
The Last Sermon (Khutbah) of Prophet Muhammad (Farewell Sermon)
Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) delivered his last sermon (Khutbah) on the ninth of Dhul Hijjah (12th and last month of the Islamic year), 10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. His words were quite clear and concise and were directed to the entire humanity.
After praising, and thanking Allah he said:
“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abd’al Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…
Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship ALLAH, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before ALLAH and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the QURAN and my example, the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O ALLAH, that I have conveyed your message to your people”.
(Reference: See Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361) Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98. Imam al-Tirmidhi has mentioned this sermon in Hadith nos. 1628, 2046, 2085. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal has given us the longest and perhaps the most complete version of this sermon in his Masnud, Hadith no. 19774.)